Situation in Darfur, Sudan

Darfur, SudanDarfur is a France-sized region of western Sudan which remains the epicentre of overlapping conflicts. The primary conflict can largely be traced back to February 2003, when rebels attacked a strategic town in central Darfur. The rebels, now known as the Sudanese Liberation Movement/Army (SLM/A) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM), took up arms against the Sudanese Government, claiming years of political, economic and social marginalisation. In response, the Government of Sudan launched a counter-insurgency campaign, arming ‘Arab’ Janjaweed militias alongside its armed forces to crush the rebellion. The Darfur conflict has also triggered a proxy war between Sudan and Chad fought by hosting and supporting the other’s rebel groups. Finally, Darfur has historically seen many localised conflicts, primarily centred on land tensions between sedentary and nomadic tribes.

Violence and broken ceasefires continued throughout 2004 and 2005 despite peace talks and the presence of an African Union protection force. UN officials estimate that over two million civilians have been displaced and at least 400,000 people have lost their lives since the violence erupted. Although violence has been more sporadic in the last few years, attacks have continued and millions of civilians are unable to return home.

The situation was referred to the Prosecutor at the International Criminal Court (ICC) by the UN Security Council on 31 March 2005, in Resolution 1593. On 27 April 2007, two warrants were issued for the arrest of Sudanese Minister for Humanitarian Affairs, Ahmad Muhammad Harun and former Janjaweed militia leader, Ali Muhammad Al Abd-Al-Rahman (“Ali Kushayb”). On 4 March 2009, Pre-Trial Chamber I at the ICC announced their decision to issue a warrant for the arrest of Sudanese President, Omar Hassan Ahmad al-Bashir on charges of crimes against humanity and war crimes for his suspected criminal responsibility for crimes committed in Darfur, particularly against civilians.

Cases before the ICC concerning the situation in Darfur, Sudan:

ICC confirms charges against suspects in attack on Darfur peacekeepersThe Controversial Actions of the ICC Prosecutor: a Crisis of Maturity?
Research/ Court Documents
Copy of Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Decision on the Prosecution Article 58(7) Application, 27-4-2007Copy of Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Warrant of arrest for Ahmad Harun, 27-4-2007Copy of Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Warrant of arrest for Ali Kushayb, 27-4-2007Copy of Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Prosecution's Appeal against Decision on Application for a Warrant of Arrest, 6-7-2009Copy of Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Prosecution's Appeal against Decision on Application for a Warrant of Arrest, 6-7-2009Copy of Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Prosecution's Appeal against Decision on Application for a Warrant of Arrest, 6-7-2009Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Decision informing the United Nations Security Council about the lack of cooperation by Sudan, 25-5-2010Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Decision on the Prosecution Article 58(7) Application, 27-4-2007Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Decision on the Prosecution Article 58(7) Application, 27-4-2007Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Warrant of arrest for Ahmad Harun, 27-4-2007Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Warrant of arrest for Ahmad Harun, 27-4-2007Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Warrant of arrest for Ali Kushayb, 27-4-2007Pros. v. A. Harun and A. Kushayb: Warrant of arrest for Ali Kushayb, 27-4-2007Pros. v. Bahar Idriss Abu Garda : Decision on the Confirmation of Charges, 8-2-2010Pros. v. Bahar Idriss Abu Garda : Decision on the Prosecutor's Application Under Article 58, 7-5-2009Pros. v. Bahar Idriss Abu Garda: Decision on the Prosecution's Application for Leave to Appeal the Decision on the Confirmation of Charges, 23-4-10Pros. v. Bahar Idriss Abu Garda: Summary of the Prosecutor's Application under Article 58 (Darfur rebels), 20-11-2008Pros. v. Banda and Jerbo: Decision Setting the Date for the Hearing of First Appearance, 15-3-2010Pros. v. Banda and Jerbo: Joint Submission on Agreed Facts, 19-10-2010Pros. v. Banda and Jerbo: Second Decision on the Prosecutor's Application under Article 58, 27-8-2010Pros. v. Banda and Jerbo: Summons To Appear for Abdallah Banda Abakaer Nourain, 27-8-2010Pros. v. Banda and Jerbo: Summons To Appear for Saleh Mohammed Jerbo Jamus, 27-8-2010Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Decision on Prosecution's Application for Leave to Appeal, 24-6-2009Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Decision on the Prosecution's Application for a Warrant of Arrest, 4-3-2009Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Judgment on Appeal of Prosecutor against Decision on Arrest Warrant, 3-02-10Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Prosecution's Appeal against Decision on Application for a Warrant of Arrest, 6-7-2009Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Public Redacted Version of Prosecution's Application under Article 58 filed on 14 July 2008, 12-9-2008Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Second Decision on the Prosecution's Application for a Warrant of Arrest, 12-07-2010Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Second Warrant of Arrest, 12-07-2010Pros. v. Omar Al Bashir: Warrant of Arrest, 4-3-2009Situation in Darfur: Decision assigning the situation in Darfur, Sudan to Pre-Trial Chamber I, 21-4-2005
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