Muammar Mohammed Al-Gaddafi

Muammar Muhammad al-Gaddafi was born in 1942 and graduated from the Lybian Military Academy 1966. It is said to have been during these years that Gaddafi developed the idea to overthrow the monarchy. He staged a coup d’etat, overtaking King Idris’s regime, in 1969 and has led his country as a dictatorship ever since. Since the very beginning of Gaddafi’s leadership, Libya has always had a rocky relationship with the international community, that reached its peak with the bombing raid led by the United States during the presidency of Ronald Reagan in 1986, and the alleged 1988 bombing of Pan Am Flight 103 over Lockerbie in Scotland in 1988. During these years Gaddafi allowed Libya to be considered as a pariah state, with no respect for human rights, internal dissidence and acts of state sponsored terrorism. In the last decade Gaddafi, who used to embrace the ideas of Arab socialism and nationalism, attempted to normalise the relations between Libya and the international community.

In February 2011, following the turmoil which disrupted Tunisian and Egyptian regimes, the Libyan population began to question Gaddafi’s autocratic rule.  The first protests started on 15 February 2011, and within a week had spread all over the country. Gaddafi allegedly responded to the uprising by using military force against civilians. Concerned by these developments, the U.N. Security Council voted unanimously on 26 February to refer the Libyan crisis to the International Criminal Court and the prosecutor launched a formal investigation days later. On 17 March 2011 the United Nations approved a no-fly zone above Libya, followed by a series of airstrikes which began on 19 March 2011.

On 4 May 2011, Luis Moreno-Ocampo stated his intention to seek arrest warrants for Colonel Muammar Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam and Abdullah al-Senussi, chief of the Libyan espionage agency.

Mr Moreno-Ocampo stated that the Office of the Prosecutor had gathered evidence on meetings between the three suspects to allegedly plan and order illegal attacks against civilians and protestors. The evidence supporting the request for the arrest warrants was presented to the Court in the form of a 74-page document, with nine annexes. The warrant applications specifically name Gaddafi for the commission of two categories of crimes against humanity under the Rome Statute: murder under Article 7(1)(a), and persecution under Article 7(1)(h).

On 27 June 2011, Pre-Trial Chamber I issued arrest warrants for Muammar Gaddafi, his son Saif al-Islam and Abdullah al-Senussi.

After the fall of Tripoli in August 2011, Gaddafi and his family fled the Libyan capital. He was arrested and subsequently killed on 20 October 2011. On 22 November 2011,  ICC Pre-Trial Chamber I announced that the case against Gaddafi had been terminated.

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Court Documents
Situation in Libya Decision assigning the situation in Libya to Pre-Trial Chamber I 04/03/2011Situation in Libya Decision on the Prosecutor's Application Pursuant to Article 58 as to Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi, Saif Al-Islam Gaddafi anSituation in Libya Prosecutor's Application against Muammar Gaddafi, Saif al-Islam and Abdullah Senussi 16/05/2011Warrant of Arrest for Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi
ICC issues Libya arrest warrants ICC Prosecutor launches Libya investigation ICC prosecutor names Muammar Gaddafi, Saif al-Islam and Abdullah Senussi as war crimes suspectsICC Prosecutor says crimes against humanity charges against Gaddafi are certain. ICC Prosecutor to brief UN on LibyaRape as weapon of war likely to be added to charges in Libya caseSecurity Council refers Libya to the ICCVideo: ICC prosecutor hopes for Gaddafi arrest